England

From Atlas Altera
Kingdom of England
Sovereign state
Anthem: Land of Hope and Glory

Location: A map of Britannia, West Europea, situated in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. England is in the centre and southeast area of the Great Britain.
AbbreviationENG
PrefixAnglo-

Capital
and Largest City
London
Largest CityLondon

LanguagesEnglish (Prevailing)
• Official Language(s)English
• Major Minority or Regional Language(s)Cumbrish, Scottish, Devnish, Kampani, Polonian, Bengali, French, Akan, Ceyloni, Sindhi, Irish, Igbo, Gujarati, Yoruba, Johori, Patwa, Sentarni

Nationality (2022)

Ethnicity (2022)

Religion (2022)

DemonymEnglish

GovernmentUnitary Republican, Constitutional Monarchy

Economic OrderMarket Capitalism
Nominal GDP$1.84 Trillion (USD)

Legal TraditionCommon Taw

Major Affiliations

Area104,350 km2 (50,301 sq mi)

Population (2022)41,951,000
Density402.02/km2 (834/sq mi)

Time ZoneWTC 0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
Calendar SystemEuropean
Arithmetic SystemMaghrebi-Indic
Measurement SystemExchequer
CurrencyPound Sterling (GBS)
Driving SideLeft

GINI (2022)36.6
HDI (2022)0.929
WHR (2022)17th

England, officially the Kingdom of England, is a Britannian nation situated in West Europea. It has an oceanic climate, and most local biomes fall under the following three: mixed forests, moors, and brushes. Most citizens of England are English themselves, and over 95% speak the language. Its land includes most of southern and central Great Britain, the largest island of Britannia. It borders Cumbreland and Scotland, and is very close in some areas to Sark, Devland, and France. The total area of England is 104,350 square kilometres (40,289 square miles), with an estimated population of almost 42 million people.

The Kingdom of England, like most European nations, exerted a widespread influence across geography. The nearby nations of Britannia, as well as Wales across the channel, were heavily influenced historically by England. To this day, many of those nations maintain large English-speaking populations. After the Norman conquest, all of Britannia was united and became a powerful empire. This helped the English to set up several colonies, and spread their influence worldwide. Over time, due to the Home Rule Movement, the nations of Britannia split away, leaving behind England as the heir to the British throne. However, due to the peaceful transitions of power, the nations maintained close and friendly relations. The other nations are usually called dominions, while England is still referred to as a kingdom due to it's status as the remnant of the United Kingdom of Britannia.

England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with a metropolitan area population of over 8 million. Other major cities include Birmingham, York, Leeds, and Norwich. England, as part of the United Kingdom, became one of the first industrialized countries and foremost military powers in the world. In the 21st century, England continues to maintain considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific, technological, and political influence. It's a capitalist nation, using the Great British Pound Sterling.

England is a member of the British Commonwealth, the Transatlantic Treaty Organisation, the Council of Europe, OECD, Five Eyes, Interpol, WTO, and the SoN. England is also a close ally to many nations, including: most of Western Europe, the Commonwealth Countries, TATO, and many others.

Etymology and Terminology

The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "Land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Theodic tribes that settled in Britannia after the fall of the Roman Empire. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula near the Bay of Kiel (in the present-day Aquilonian state of Saxony). The earliest use of the term was "Engla londe", in the ninth-century translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People into Old English. The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the all of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. But tribes in that part of Aquilonia more often named themselves after their implements or weapons, so it is more likely the name derives from Proto-Theodic angulaz (fishhook) - that is, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were originally descended from such. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Theodic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons (Eald-Seaxe) of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Aquilonia. In Scottish, another language which developed on the island of Britannia, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn); similarly, the Cumbrish name for the English language is "Saesneg". A romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Cumbrish word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. Albion is also applied to England in a more poetic capacity, though its original meaning is the island of Britannia as a whole.

History

Prehistory and Antiquity

Stonehenge, in Wiltshire is a ring of stones, each roughly 4 m high and 2 m wide. It was erected between 2400-2200 BC.

Britannia was first settled by Homo Sapiens roughly 30,000 years ago. It is widely believed that the vast majority of the population after the waves of settlement was Insular Celtic. This included not only England, but the rest of Britannia.

In 43 AD, the Roman conquest of Britannia began. Over the span of 41 years, the Romans killed roughly 150,000 people out of the two million inhabitants of Britannia at that time. During the invasions, a large resistance was led by Boudica, the Queen of the Iceni. This revolt was almost successful, but ended at the Battle of Watling Street, where Boudica was defeated.

Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, led a revolt against the Roman invaders.

After the Romans succeeded in conquering Britannia, they were able to both bring new goods into Britannia, and take new goods out for themselves. Into Britannia came glass, silk, new crops, concrete, aqueducts, and so much more. The local Celts sold oats, wheat, barley, gold, copper, tin, iron, bronze, and more to the Romans, and had equal status to them as citizens. The Romans first introduced Christianity to Britannia in approximately 180 AD.

Middle Ages

After Rome withdrew from Britain, the Celts were able to retake Britannia. However, this newfound Celtic dominance wouldn't last long. Theodic groups from northwestern continental Europea, mainly the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians invaded and settled Britannia.

In 1066, the Normans, themselves a Theodic group that settled in northern Gallia, invaded Britannia. After conquering modern-day England, they seized large parts of what would now be called Devland and Cumbreland. Once their invasion of central and southern Britannia was complete, they attacked the then-newly-formed Kingdom of Scotland, and conquered Ireland by the 12th century. Thus, Britannia was brought into a personal union by the Normans, who later fully retreated to Britannia after expulsion from Gallia by the French.

The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the 1066 Battle of Hastings, in which the Normans conquered England.

This personal union would later become the United Kingdom of Britannia, a very powerful nation that would shape history for many years to come. After the Norman conquest, life in Britannia didn't change much. Nearby nations fought wars, and Britannia often joined, usually against France. However, beyond wars, the Middle Ages weren't eventful, and borders remained the same throughout the whole time.

Renaissance

In the 1500's, the Renaissance reached Britannia, bringing with it a flourish of education, discoveries, technologies, culture, and art. Britannia began strengthening its navy, and expanding into the New World. At around the same time, Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church, and declared himself the Head of the Church of Britannia. To this day, almost half of England's population remains Anglican. Henry VIII's reign, now commonly called the Tudor Era, marked a time of great upheaval. Different monarchs after him had different opinions as to which sect of Christianity is correct, and many citizens were persecuted for their beliefs.

Henry VIII
Elizabeth I

After the Tudor Era ended, Queen Elizabeth I came to power and ushered in the Elizabethean Era. This was the peak of the Britannian Renaissance, and saw many great plays, artworks, and works of literature produced. In the latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign, Britannia began founding colonies abroad, focusing on the Americas. In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh oversaw the founding of an outpost in Roanoke, as a Britannian attempt to end Spain's foothold in the Americas. In 3 years time the colony went missing, a mystery that is yet to be solved.

By the 1600's, the Britannian Parliament was founded. It was intended as a council to advise the monarch, yet over time became the main branch of government. It is led by a Prime Minister, and consists of two houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The House of Commons is elected by the people every 4 years, as is the Prime Minister. Meanwhile, the House of Lords is chosen by the monarch as a cabinet or group of advisors to help run the country.

Industrialization and the Modern Era

In the 1700s, steam power was discovered. The Britannians were the first to discover this, and capitalized by setting up coal mines and factories both at home and abroad in their several colonies. This resulted in industrialized forms of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, forestry, and engineering, as well as many new railways, canals, and roads being opened to promote trade and strengthen the economy.

With this expanded capability of production, the Britannians were able to build up a stronger military, and especially navy. Britannia then became involved in part of the Coalition against Napoleon, along with Russia, Italy, and Prussia. During the Napoleonic wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the south. However, the Battle of Trafalgar cemented a Britannian supremacy over the Norman Channel, as well as other waterways in Europea.

London became the largest and most economically productive metropolitan area in the world, and Britannian trade was considered the best in the world. In the 1870s however, things started taking a turn. The Home Rule movement began, and after years of negotiating, Britannia was split into the 7 nations that we know today. When the 1900s came along, decolonization movements began to spring up in colonies that England still had abroad. These were also ultimately granted independence, as there were greater political pressures on England.

In the 1910s, many nations of Europea began going to war with each other. They then cemented into two alliances: the Central Powers and the Entente. This event became known as the Great War, and is now called World War 1. England took a central role in it, as part of the Entente. Soon after, in the 1940s, World War 2 happened. This was due to rising fascism in Europea and Asea, as well as the expansionist beliefs held by those nations. After WW2, a spur of technological innovations ocurred, making the most popular forms of travel jet airplanes on long distances, and automobiles on short to medium distances.

Since the 1970s, there has been a move made away from a manufacturing based economy, towards a service based one. Many people still immigrate to England from all over the world, seeking a better place to live or a better job. This, coupled with the advent of computers and the Internet, helps England remain the major power that it is today.

Geography

A satellite map of Britannia, focused on England in the centre.

The total area of England is approximately 104,350 km2. The country occupies a major part of the Britannian Archipelago and the island of Great Britain. It lies between the English Sea and the Norman Channel with its southeast coast coming within 35 km of mainland Europea. The Norman Channel, which separates the two, serves as a major trade and transport hub, and can be crossed via the Channel Tunnel, a train service, numerous ferries, and hovercraft.

The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle all respectively are located on the rivers Thames, Mersey, and Tyne. The longest river flowing through England is the Severn at 350 km. It empties into the Bristol Channel and is famous for the Severn Bore, which can reach up to 2 m in height. However, the longest river located solely in England is the Thames, which is 346 km long. In addition to rivers, England has numerous lakes, the largest of which is Windermere. Most of England's landscape consists of hills and plains, with mounatinous terrain in the north and west.

The northern uplands include the Pennines, Lake District Mountains, and Cheviot Hills. The highest point in England is Scalfell Pike in the Lake District at 978 m in height. The Shorpshire Hills are near the border with Cumbreland, while Dartmoor and Exmoor are located in the southwest of the country. The boundary between the low, flat terrain and the mountainous and hilly land is indicated by the arbitrary Tees-Exe Line.

In geological terms, the Pennines, known as "the backbone of England", are the oldest mountains in the country, having originated in the Paleozoic era roughly 300 million years ago. They are composed of sandstone and limestone, among other rocks, and contain large amounts of coal. There are also calcite karsts in areas such as Yorkshire and Derbyshire. The Pennine landscape is mainly high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys formed through the many small English rivers. They contain two national parks: the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. Meanwhile near Devland, Dartmoor and Exmoor include moorlands supported by granite, and enjoy a warm and moderate climate. Both Dartmoor and Exmoor are national parks.

The lowlands, located in the central and southeast regions of England, consist of green rolling hills and include the Cotswolds, Chilterns, Downs, etc. Where these hills meet the sea, they form exposures of white rock, such as what happened in the Cliffs of Dover. This area also includes plains such as Salisbury, Somerset, South Coast, and the Fens.

Climate

Skiddaw Massif, as seen from Walla Crag

England has a temperate oceanic climate: it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C during the winter months, and not much higher than 30 °C in the summer months. Most of the year, the weather is damp and changes frequently. Rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout the year, although there is slightly more during the cold months. The colder months are usually January and February in the European calendar, and the warmest month is July.

Major factors that influence England's climate include its northern latitude, proximity to the Weswegian Sea, and the warming of the waters by the Gulf Stream. Rain is much more commonplace in the northwest of the country, especially near the border with Scotland. Since weather records began, the highest temperature England has seen was 38.7 °C, while the lowest was -26.1 °C.

Nature and Fauna

England's fauna is similar to that of the rest of the British Isles, with a wide range of life in a diverse range of habitats and ecosystems.

Red deer in Richmond Park

National Nature Reserves are chosen and protected by Natural England as important places containing wildlife and natural features of the landscape. They were established to protect important habitat areas and geological formations. NNRs are managed by Natural England on behalf of the nation itself, although some are also jointly managed between Natural England and a number of other organizations, such as the Wildlife Trusts, the National Trust, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. There are 229 NNRs in England, collectively covering roughly 940 square kilometers. Oftentimes, NNRs contain rare species or important populations of plants and animals.

The Environmental Agency is a public body established in 1995 by the Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) responsible for the protection and enhancement of the environment in England. The Secretary of the Environmental Agency is the minister responsible for environmental protection, NNR administration, and answering on behalf of the Environmental Agency to the DEFRA.

Though England has a temperate oceanic climate, lacking extreme heat and extreme cold, some areas in the southwest are warmer, while some areas in the north can be classified as subarctic. Towards the north, the climate becomes progressively colder, in addition to most of England's hills and mountains being located here. Deciduous woodlands are common all throughout the country, and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife. In the north, these give way to coniferous forests, also benefiting the local wildlife. Some species have adapted to urban life, such as the brown rat, common wood pigeon, and the red fox. The most common species are rodents and similar mammals, and include red squirells, grey squirells, rabbits, brown hares, and mountain hares.

Governance

Politics

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Law

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Transport

England's transport network, overseen by the Department for Transport, is vast and dense. Its many motorways connect major cities, such as the A1, running from London through Newcastle and on to the Scottish border.

Bus transport is also widespread, though not as popular in most of the country. However, ridership in London has significantly increased. London was once home to the iconic red AEC Routemaster double-decker buses, which were built during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Even after their eventual phasing out, they remain a symbol of England.

The railway network has a rich history dating back to the 1820s. Most train services originate from one of London's passenger termini in all directions. Major high-speed rail corridors originating out of London include the East Coast Main Line to Eideann, the Midland Main Line to Birmingham and Leeds, the Great Western Main Line to Bristol, and the Great Eastern Main Line to Norwich. The East Coast Main Line in particular is very storied, having been served by famous locomotives and trains such as the LNER Gresley Classes A1, A3, and A4, InterCity 125 and 225, and the English Rail Class 800. Outside of the high-speed lines, regional and suburban rail lines branch to other settlements throughout the country.

The London Underground, nicknamed "the Tube" after its circular tunnels, is the world's first rapid transit network, carrying over a billion passengers per year on 11 lines. Much like the Routemasters, it is an icon of English transport.

Heathrow Airport in London is the largest airport in Britannia and part of a group of airports in and around London. It is a hub for the country's largest airline, English Airways.

Prior to the railways, goods were mostly transported via canals. Even today, over 1,000 miles of waterways exist in England, mostly for recreation. Ocean liners were also prominent in English transport. Ocean liner services still depart the Port of Southampton en route to New York, Long Island.

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Demographics

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Architecture

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